222.540 Hydraulics
This course is in all assigned curricula part of the STEOP.
This course is in at least 1 assigned curriculum part of the STEOP.

2023W, VO, 2.5h, 3.5EC


  • Semester hours: 2.5
  • Credits: 3.5
  • Type: VO Lecture
  • Format: Presence

Learning outcomes

After successful completion of the course, students are able to...

Part 1 : Sediment transport

  • discuss the field of application of the course material
  • discuss the semi-empirical nature of sediment transport theory
  • derive the control parameters of a problem based on dimensional analysis
  • estimate the settling velocity of sediment in water
  • explain the difference between bed load and suspended load sediment transport
  • quantify the threshold for the initiation of sediment transport as bed load and suspended load
  • design measures for the stabilization of a river bed
  • identify the main control parameters governing the transport of sediment
  • explain the modelling of the concentration of suspended sediment and the role of turbulence
  • quantify the rate of sediment transport as bed load, suspended load and/or total load
  • identify the most appropriate formula for quantifying the rate of sediment transport in a given configuration
  • discuss the uncertainty inherent in quantitative estimations of sediment transport
  • discuss the hypotheses underlying a sediment transport formula and its application range

Part 2 : Hydraulic structures

  • discuss the field of application of the course material
  • discuss the multiple purposes of dams
  • classify different types of dams
  • discuss and give examples of the multiple disciplines involved in dam engineering and management
  • explain the importance of hydrological conditions for dam engineering and management
  • understand the danger of seepage, internal erosion and piping
  • identify the main appurtenant structures and explain their functionality
  • discuss the different types and purposes of weirs
  • explain and derive the hydraulic theory of weirs
  • discuss and quantify the discharge coefficient in the weir formula.
  • explain the application range of rectangular and triangular weirs
  • design a weir for a given application
  • discuss the different types and purposes of gates
  • explain and derive the hydraulic theory of gates, and in particular the different scenarios for the water levels and water surface profiles upstream and downstream of the gate
  • discuss and quantify the discharge coefficient and the vena contracta in the gate formulas.
  • compute the water levels and water surface profiles upstream and downstream of a gate
  • identify examples of translatory waves of natural and human origin
  • classify and explain the different types of translatory waves
  • explain the difference between oscillatory and translatory waves
  • identify the first principles underlying the hydraulic theory of translatory waves
  • explain the hydraulic theory of translatory waves
  • apply the hydraulic theory of translatory waves to real-world examples
  • explain the necessity of energy-dissipating structures
  • explain the physics underlying energy dissipation in flows
  • choose the appropriate type of energy-dissipating structures based on the energy height to be dissipated
  • discuss in descriptive terms the process and importance of cavitation
  • explain the working principle of a stilling basin
  • compute the characteristics of a hydraulic jump

Guest lectures

  • identify and summarize the main contributions of the guest lecture
  • relate the contents of the guest lecture to the course contents

Subject of course

The course consists of two parts that represent both about half of the course. The first part treats sediment transport and the second part is about hydraulic structures. The relation of both parts to the broad field of hydraulic engineering and their relevance to engineering practice are explained in the introduction.

The part on sediment transport consists of five lectures. The core topics are the threshold conditions for the initiation of sediment transport and sediment transport as bed load and suspended load. Special attention is given to computational examples of practical relevance and to highlighting the simplifications and assumptions underlying the commonly used theories.

The part on hydraulic structures also consists of five lectures. One lecture explains the multi-disciplinary nature of hydraulic structures, mainly through the example of dams and their numerous appurtenant structures. Separate lectures are then dedicated to the hydraulics of weirs, gates and energy-dissipating structures, which are the main appurtenant structures. One lecture deals with rapidly-varied flows and translatory waves, which are typically induced by the operation of hydraulic structures.

Invited lectures given by top-level external experts enhance the link with the hydraulic engineering practice. Depending on the availability of the guest lecturers, the course typically includes two to three guest lectures. Typical topics are sediment transport, dams, and the maintenance of hydraulic structures.

The course content and organization is further detailed on TUWEL.

Teaching methods

A combination of plenary lecture (PL) and flipped classroom (FC) is used as follows:

  • Theory: Plenary lecture (for units with predominant theory) or flipped classroom (for units with predominant examples/exercises, first self-study followed by a plenary session)
  • Examples/exercises: flipped classroom (first self-study followed by a plenary session)
  • Guest lectures: Plenary lecture

Note that it is important that the students understand the philosophy of the flipped-classroom concept. The fundamental assumption is that the lecturer-student interaction has more added value in the application of knowledge than in the acquisition of knowledge. Students acquire knowledge in an autonomous way through self-study. The forum and consulting hours are available for questions, discussion and feedback. The plenary sessions focus on the application of the theory.

An important requisite for the successful implementation of the flipped-classroom concept is that students come well-prepared to the plenary session, i.e. they have thoroughly studied the theory and solved already some examples themselves.

When required by the ministry or rectorate: Covid-19 format:

Plenary lectures and plenary session are given online via Zoom. A complete transcription of the material is given in the notes of the corresponding ppt slides.


Mode of examination


Additional information

The exams are held in presence or online, depending on the currently valid requirements of the Ministry and the Rectorate. If the examinations have to be held online, the use of the same material as for the presence examination is permitted. If you are unable to attend a presence examination for good reason, as well as if you have any further questions, please contact the responsible assistant when registering for the examination (at least 7 days in advance).



Course dates

Wed09:00 - 11:0004.10.2023 - 24.01.2024HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon11:00 - 13:0016.10.2023HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon11:00 - 13:0023.10.2023HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon11:00 - 13:0030.10.2023HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon11:00 - 13:0020.11.2023HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Hydraulics - Single appointments
Wed04.10.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed11.10.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon16.10.202311:00 - 13:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed18.10.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon23.10.202311:00 - 13:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed25.10.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon30.10.202311:00 - 13:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed08.11.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Mon20.11.202311:00 - 13:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed22.11.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed29.11.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed06.12.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed13.12.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed20.12.202309:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed10.01.202409:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed17.01.202409:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung
Wed24.01.202409:00 - 11:00HS 18 Czuber - MB Vorlesung

Examination modalities

The exam exclusively concerns the materials included in the PowerPoint documents. The questions will be in German, but English versions will be available on request (they have to be requested at least 7 days in advance).

The exam consists of 2 parts, separated by a 15 min break.

  1. 30 minutes theoretical questions: short multiple choice questions aiming at testing your understanding of the theory; there is no need to memorize or be able to derive equations. You are not allowed to use any lecture or personal notes, formularies, calculators, electronic devices, etc.!
  2. 90 minutes practical calculation exercises: Electronic devices are not allowed, except a non-programmable pocket calculator (for example TI-30-Models, Casio fx-82/991 WITHOUT Plus). The only extra documentation allowed is the formulary, which includes all relevant information required to solve the exercises.

The theoretical part will count for half of the total note, and the exercises will count for the other half. Only the total note will determine whether or not you pass the exam. There is no oral exam.

PRESENCE exams (current mode)

As before, the following applies to face-to-face examinations:

30 minutes theoretical questions:

A multiple-choice test is used for this, which is then evaluated automatically. A questionnaire and an answer sheet are issued. PLEASE NOTE: Only the correct ticks on the answer sheet will be evaluated! To prepare for the exam, it is essential to visit the tutorial in the TUWEL course. Extra tools, including lecture notes, formularies, pocket calculators, electronic devices, etc., are not permitted!

90 minutes practical calculation exercises:

PLEASE NOTE: Electronic devices are not permitted, with the exception of non-programmable pocket calculators. A formulary is issued during the examination (available for practice purposes on TUWEL).

Further information on the presence exam:

  • The available seats in the lecture hall are those where paper lies on the desk.
  • Do not forget to write your name and matriculation number on every page you use.
  • Put your Studentenausweis on the Table.
  • Beside your Studentenausweis, you are only allowed to have a pen and a Geodreieck on your desk for the theoretical part. For the exercises, you are allowed to have in addition a non-programmable pocket calculator and formulary (optional).
  • Questions can only be answered on official paper, i.e. the paper that you find on the desk. Additional paper can be obtained on request.
  • The theoretical questions must be crossed clearly on the answer sheet, not on the questionnaire (see tutorial in the TUWEL course).
  • Every exercise has to be answered on a separate page. The structure of your answers must follow and include the numbering of the questions.
  • All papers will be collected at the end, including drafts.

ONLINE-exams (TUWEL and ZOOM, currently NOT planned, unless the regulatory requirements change)

The online exam will be organized exclusively through TUWEL and ZOOM. It concerns a combination of “written online exam as “Quiz” on TUWEL” („Schriftliche Online-Prüfung als „Test“ in TUWEL“) and “written online test on paper” („Schriftliche Online-Prüfung auf Papier“) as indicated in the TU Wien online exam guidelines.

The students are responsible to fulfil the technical and spatial requirements for an online exam. These include:

  • a PC/Notebook/Tablet with a camera, microphone and speakers (or a Headset)
  • a stable internet connection
  • an examination room in which the participant is alone
  • no disruptions during the duration of the exam
  • a PRINTOUT of the latest version of the formulary, printed in advance
  • 6 pages of unlined, blank, white paper, writing utensils and other allowed tools (a transparent glass of water or a transparent drinking bottle without a label are, of course, allowed)
  • the means to digitalize/scan written on pages for the submission (a scanner or smartphone scanner app)

Examination supervision: For fair examination supervision, the students themselves, the desk and the screen must be visible in the ZOOM meeting! There are usually 2 possible variants for this:

  • if the webcam is integrated into the working device, the working device must be positioned so that the student AND the desk are visible. It must still be possible for the student to operate the working device (for multiple-choice input and communication) and it must also be possible to read the TUWEL page with exam questions and answers (e.g. external mouse/keyboard, adjust display size). At the same time, continuous screen sharing is required to be able to control its content.
  • if an external webcam is available and can be positioned in such a way that the student, the desk AND the screen are clearly visible, continuous screen sharing can be dropped.

The set-up should be tried and tested by the students in advance of the exam date. In case a student does not own a webcam (separate or built-in), a smartphone camera can also be used (possibly in combination with apps like DroidCam). The webcam should be turned on during the full duration of the exam.

As part of the examination supervision, it is necessary that the completeZOOM web meeting is RECORDED during the exam (allowed tools, parallel sessions). You will therefore be asked for your consent through TUWEL days before the exam and reference is made to the TU data protection information.

If you do not want to consent to the recording or if you have other problems with the online exam requirements, please contact the responsible assistant when registering for the exam (at least 7 days in advance) and a solution will be worked out (taking the online exam at the institute).

At the starting time of the exam, the students that are registered for one of that day’s exam sessions, get access to all the relevant documentation and a Zoom web meeting link on the current TUWEL course page.

At least 10 minutes before the start of the exam, the student should enter the relevant Zoom web meeting, so there is enough time for the practical set-up. Upon entry into the Zoom web meeting, the student should introduce themselves using their first and last names.

At the start of the exam, the identity of each student will be checked by means of a video identification process (moving both head and ID in front of the camera). Then the student will be asked to turn the camera around and picture the whole room, in order to confirm that no unauthorized tools or other people are present in the room. After that the exam will be started.

During the exam, all participants are divided into private breakout sessions. Questions can be asked of the examiner when he/she joins the breakout session at regular intervals for control, or by using the zoom function "Ask for help".

During the full duration of the exam the audio output (speakers/headphones) has to be activated, so that the supervisor’s announcements can be heard and directives can be adhered to. When there is an indication of exam fraud, the supervisor will give the student in question instructions (turning the camera around again or sharing the screen) which must be followed. In case the student does not comply or the suspected fraud is proven, the exam will be terminated for that student and will be counted as one of the total amount of allowed attempts.

In the case of technical malfunctions, the supervisor will decide (depending on duration and scope of the issue) whether the exam has to be terminated or can be carried on for the student in question. In case of prolonged technical problems, the supervisor in charge should be contacted by e-mail.

30 minutes theoretical questions:

A TUWEL quiz will be made available, which has to be filled out and handed in within 30 minutes after starting the quiz. The quiz will be an automatically composed multiple choice test with mixed questions, which can be answered until the deadline. During the online quiz, a continuous Zoom web meeting connection (eye contact, screen visible/shared) has to be running and no external tools (lectures notes, etc.) are allowed.

15 minutes break:

During the break, the student is allowed to leave the room (to use the restroom, get a drink or snack,…). During the theoretical and practical exam parts, the student is not allowed to leave their examination room!

90 minutes practical calculation exercises:

Before the start of the practical part, the examination room and the allowed tools (self-printed formulary, non-programmable calculator) will be checked again through the student’s camera. Afterwards the information and the submission page on TUWEL will be unlocked (can be printed or read on the screen) and the working time start running. As previously described, during the whole duration of the practical exam, the camera has to be positioned so that eye contact is possible, the table is within view and the screen is visible/shared.

The upper right corner of the first page (size of a student ID) should not be written on. Every exercise has to be answered on a separate page. The structure of your answers must follow and include the numbering of the questions.

To submit the practical part, all of the written pages have to be scanned (or photographed) completely and uploaded through TUWEL within 10 minutes after the end of the exam. The student ID has to be placed on the first page in the upper right corner (on the for this purpose reserved open space) and scanned with the rest of the page. It is not allowed to upload separate images. All scanned pages have to be combined into one PDF document (use apps like Adobe Scan, Office Lens, etc., test them and learn to operate them before the exam!). During the scanning (or photographing) and uploading, the Zoom web meeting has to keep running. This means that the scanning device already has to be placed within reach before the start of the exam. If a smartphone is used as a webcam, then it can NOT be used to scan (or photograph) the exam.

After a check of the exam submission, the Zoom web meeting will be ended BY THE SUPERVISOR. In the case a student wants to leave the exam before the time limit has been reached, they have to notify the supervisor through the Zoom chat. THE SUPERVISOR will then end the connection for that student. Should a student independently terminate the ZOOM web meeting connection during the exam, this will be considered an exam termination.


DayTimeDateRoomMode of examinationApplication timeApplication modeExam
Mon10:00 - 13:0007.10.2024HS 14A Günther Feuerstein written06.09.2024 12:00 - 03.10.2024 12:00TISSPrüfung
Mon10:00 - 13:0007.10.2024HS 7 Schütte-Lihotzky - ARCH written05.09.2024 12:00 - 03.10.2024 12:00TISSPrüfung 20221003
Mon08:00 - 11:0016.12.2024HS 14A Günther Feuerstein written15.11.2024 12:00 - 12.12.2024 12:00TISSPrüfung
Mon08:00 - 11:0016.12.2024Seminarraum AD 03 - 1 written15.11.2024 12:00 - 12.12.2024 12:00TISSPrüfung 20221212
Thu09:00 - 12:0016.01.2025HS 7 Schütte-Lihotzky - ARCH written16.12.2024 12:00 - 14.01.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung
Thu09:00 - 12:0016.01.2025HS 17 Friedrich Hartmann - ARCH written16.12.2024 12:00 - 14.01.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung 20230119
Tue12:00 - 15:0004.03.2025HS 17 Friedrich Hartmann - ARCH written04.02.2025 12:00 - 28.02.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung
Tue12:00 - 15:0004.03.2025HS 8 Heinz Parkus - CEE written04.02.2025 12:00 - 28.02.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung 20230307
Wed14:00 - 17:0014.05.2025HS 7 Schütte-Lihotzky - ARCH written14.04.2025 12:00 - 12.05.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung 20241505
Wed14:00 - 17:0014.05.2025Seminarraum AD 03 - 1 written14.04.2025 12:00 - 12.05.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung 20241505
Tue10:00 - 13:0017.06.2025HS 8 Heinz Parkus - CEE written16.05.2025 12:00 - 13.06.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung 20230614
Tue10:00 - 13:0017.06.2025written16.05.2025 12:00 - 13.06.2025 12:00TISSPrüfung 20230614

Course registration

Begin End Deregistration end
31.08.2023 12:00 30.01.2024 12:00 30.01.2024 12:00


Study CodeObligationSemesterPrecon.Info
033 265 Civil Engineering Mandatory3. SemesterSTEOP
Course requires the completion of the introductory and orientation phase


There is no script for the course offered. All presented PowerPoint slides are provided with comments in the related TUWEL course (Key: KW22).

Previous knowledge

The course (VO) Hydraulics (222.564) is highly recommended !

Preceding courses

Accompanying courses

Continuative courses